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A brief history of Croatia

  Concise encyclopedic article of 14 sentences about major events in political history of Croatia throughout 14 centuries, in 7 languages
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In the occasion of Croatian accession to the European Union on 1 July 2013, Metodios proudly presents its first main topic, A brief history of Croatia, which can be copied and distributed through media, publications, official documents and business overviews.

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A brief history of Croatia

In the year 626, the Croatian people submitted the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Illyricum and established two independent principalities that were united into the Croatian Kingdom by its first King Tomislav who was crowned in 925. Along with the Frankish Kingdom, Adriatic Croatia was the first permanent and organised state in Central Europe. After the extinction of the native Trpimirović dynasty, the Parliament (Sabor) was electing rulers of other states as Kings of Croatia, thereby creating a personal union – first between Croatia and Hungary (1102 – 1300 and 1307 – 1526), and then between Croatia and Austria (1527 – 1918). Between the 15th and 18th centuries, the Croatian Kingdom acted as a bulwark for Christian Europe and was crucial in halting the further advance of the Ottoman Empire towards the West, while on the other side the Venetian Republic occupied most of the Croatian coast. Owing to its special position within the Habsburg Monarchy, the Croatian Kingdom preserved its sovereignty until the collapse of the Monarchy in 1918.

After discontinuing constitutional links with Austria and Hungary in 1918, Croatia was included in the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) without the consent of the Parliament. As a result, Croatia was for the first time placed within a Balkan political context, and by coercion, ceased to exist as a state. The autonomous Banovina of Croatia, established in 1939 by the agreement between the Croatian opposition and the Yugoslav Government, lasted until the Axis powers broke up Yugoslavia in 1941. Despite the plebiscitary support of the population for the pro-Western peasant-democratic coalition, the Second World War in Croatia was led between two radical movements – the Ustasha under the auspices of the Axis and the Communists (Partisans) on the side of the Allies, which both declared their own Croatian state. From 1945, Croatia was one of the six federal states of Marshal Tito's communist Yugoslavia. The democratic people's movement known as the Croatian Spring which sought political rights for Croatia within Yugoslavia and which opposed the forced merging of the Croatian language with Serbian into Serbo-Croatian in 1967, was repressed by the Yugoslav regime in 1971.

Following democratic elections in 1990, the Republic of Croatia declared independence in 1991, as the majority of member states of Yugoslavia did. Using the former federal army and local rebels, Serbia and Montenegro attacked Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991 with the aim of retaining the territories conquered in the rump Yugoslavia. The war ended in 1995 with a victory for Croatia and the liberation of occupied areas, while the simultaneous successes of the Croatian-Bosniak alliance led to the peace process in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ■


METODIOS A BRIEF HISTORY OF CROATIA
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